Learning Resources—Recommended Reading

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. Blacks in the Westward Movement. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975.

Bier, Lisa. American Indian and African American People, Communities, and Interactions: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.

Brooks, James F., ed. Confounding the Color Line: The Indian-Black Experience in North America. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002.

Brown, Cloyde I. Black Warrior Chiefs: A History of the Seminole Negro Indian Scouts: A True Story. Fort Worth: C. I. Brown, 1999.

Downs, Dorothy. “Possible African Influence on the Art of the Florida Seminoles.” In African Impact on the Material Culture of the Americas: A Conference Presented by Diggs Gallery at Winston-Salem State University, Old Salem, the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, pp. 1–10. Winston-Salem, NC: Winston-Salem State University, May 30–June 2, 1996.

Forbes, Jack D. Black Africans and Native Americans: Color, Race, and Caste in the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. New York: Blackwell, 1988.

———. Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. 2nd ed. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Guinn, Jeff. Our Land Before We Die: The Proud Story of the Seminole Negro. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2002.

Harris, Julia. “The Black-Indian Connection in Art: American Portraits, Soulscapes and Spirit Works.” International Review of African American Art 17, no. 1 (2000): 2–40.

Howard, Rosalyn. Black Seminoles in the Bahamas. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.

Hudson, Charles M., ed. Red, White, and Black: Symposium on Indians in the Old South. Southern Anthropological Society Proceedings, no. 5. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1971.

Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. New York: Atheneum, 1986.

Katz, William Loren, and Paula A. Franklin. Proudly Red and Black: Stories of African and Native Americans. New York: Atheneum, 1993.

Lindsey, Donal F., Jr. Indians at Hampton Institute, 1877–1923. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr. Africans and Seminoles: From Removal to Emancipation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977.

———. Africans and Creeks: From the Colonial Period to the Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979.

———. The Cherokee Freedmen: From Emancipation to Citizenship. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980.

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr. and Mary Ann Littlefield. “The Beams Family: Free Blacks in Indian Territory.” Journal of Negro History 41 (January 1976): 17–35.

May, Katja. African Americans and the Native Americans in the Creek and Cherokee Nations, 1830s to 1920s: Collision and Collusion. New York: Garland, 1996.

Miles, Tiya. Ties that Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Mulroy, Kevin. Freedom on the Border: The Seminole Maroons in Florida, the Indian Territory, Coahuila, and Texas. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1993.

———. The Seminole Freedmen: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007.

Nash, Gary B. Red, White, and Black: The Peoples of Early America. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1974.

Naylor, Celia. African Cherokees in Indian Territory: From Chattel to Citizens. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Opala, Joseph A. “Double Homecoming: American Indians with African Roots Return to the ‘Rice Coast.’” West Africa 3778 (January 22–28, 1990): 97.

Parry, Ellwood. The Image of the Indian and the Black Man in American Art, 1590–1900. New York: George Braziller, 1974.

Perdue, Theda. Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee Society, 1540–1866. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979.

———. The Black Seminoles: History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Edited by Alcione M. Amos and Thomas P. Senter. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996.

Saunt, Claudio. Black, White, and Indian: Race and the Unmaking of an American Family. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Viola, Herman J. After Columbus: The Smithsonian Chronicle of the North American Indians. Washington: Smithsonian Books, 1990.

Walton-Raji, Angela Y. Black Indian Genealogy Research: African American Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes, an Expanded Edition. Westminster, MD: Heritage Books, 2009.

Wright, J. Leitch, Jr. Creeks and Seminoles: The Destruction and Regeneration of the Muscogulge People. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986.

Zellar, Gary. African Creeks: Estelvste and the Creek Nation. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007.