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HOME | LESSONS & RESOURCES | THE NAVAJO TREATY OF 1868: WHY WAS THE NAVAJO JOURNEY HOME SO REMARKABLE?
digital lesson

The Navajo Treaty of 1868: Why Was the Navajo Journey Home So Remarkable?

This online lesson provides Native perspectives, images, documents, and other sources to help students and teachers understand the remarkable nature of the Navajo Treaty of 1868 and why the Navajo maintained an unflinching resolve to return home. Examine the Navajo Treaty of 1868 and the nation's journey home to understand how a people's agency and strength reaffirms and rebuilds Navajo (Diné) nationhood, culture, and sovereignty.

Resource Information

grades   6 7 8
nations
Navajo (Diné)
subjects
Geography, Government & Civics, History, Social Studies
regions
North America, Southwest
keywords
Navajo, Diné, Navajo Nation, removal, westward expansion, treaty, treaties, Navajo Treaty of 1868, Kit Carson, scorched earth campaign, Bosque Redondo, reservation, internment camp, assimilation, homelands, Fort Sumner, Long Walk, William T. Sherman, Samuel F. Tappan, Barboncito, Chief Barboncito, Manuelito, homelands, ancestral homelands, Four Corners
Essential Understandings

1: American Indian Culture
Interactions with Europeans and Americans brought accelerated and often devastating changes to American Indian cultures.

Native People continue to fight to maintain the integrity and viability of viability of indigenous societies. American Indian history is one of cultural persistence, creative adaptation, renewal, and resilience.

2: Time, Continuity, and Change
Hearing and understanding American Indian history from Indian perspectives provides an important point of view to the discussion of history and cultures in the Americas. Indian perspectives expand the social, political, and economic dialogue.

6: Power, Authority, and Governance
Today, tribal governments operate under self-chosen traditional or constitution-based governmental structures. Based on treaties, laws, and court decisions, they operate as sovereign nations within the United States, enacting and enforcing laws and managing judicial systems, social well-being, natural resources, and economic, educational, and other programs for their members. Tribal governments are also responsible for interactions with American federal, state, and municipal governments.

A variety of political, economic, legal, military, and social policies were used by Europeans and Americans to remove and relocate American Indians and to destroy their cultures. U.S. policies regarding American Indians were the result of major national debate. Many of these policies had a devastating effect on established American Indian governing principles and systems. Other policies sought to strengthen and restore tribal self-government.

Academic Standards

College, Career, & Civic Life—C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards

Overarching Standards/Summative Performance Task

D1.5.6-8
Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration multiple points of views represented in the sources.

D4.1.6-8
Construct arguments using claims and evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging the strengths and limitations of the arguments.


Supporting Question 1

D2.Geo.6.6-8
Explain how the physical and human characteristics of places and regions are connected to human identities and cultures.

D2.His.13.6-8
Evaluate the relevancy and utility of a historical source based on information such as maker, date, place of origin, intended audience, and purpose.


Supporting Question 2

D2.Geo.6.6-8
Explain how the physical and human characteristics of places and regions are connected to human identities and cultures.

D2.Civ.3.6-8
Examine the origins, purposes, and impact of constitutions, laws, treaties, and international agreements.

D4.1.6-8
Construct arguments using claims and evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging the strengths and limitations of the arguments.


Contemporary Connections

D4.7.6-8
Assess their individual and collective capacities to take action to address local, regional, and global problems, taking into account a range of possible levers of power, strategies, and potential outcomes.

D4.8.6-8
Apply a range of deliberative and democratic procedures to make decisions and take action in their classrooms and schools, and in out-of-school civic contexts.


Common Core State Standards

Overarching Standards/Summative Performance Task

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.1
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.1
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST11-12.1
Write [construct] arguments focused on discipline-specific content.


Supporting Question 1

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.1
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.1
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

6 Grade
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.6.1
Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

7 Grade
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.7.1
Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

8 Grade
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.8.1
Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

6–8 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.1.B
Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.


Supporting Question 2

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.1
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.1
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

6 Grade
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.6.1
Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

7 Grade
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.7.1
Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

8 Grade
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.8.1
Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

6–8 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.1.B
Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.


Contemporary Connections

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.2
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.