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digital lesson

American Indian Removal: What Does It Mean to Remove a People?

This online lesson provides perspectives from Native American community members, documents, maps, images, and activities to help students and teachers understand an important and difficult chapter in United States history. Explore the vast scope of removal and its effects on Native Nations.

Resource Information

grades   7 8 9 10 11 12
nations
Cherokee, Eastern Band of Cherokee, Kickapoo, Muscogee (Creek), Potawatomi, Seminole, Shawnee
subjects
Geography, Government and Civics, History, Social Studies
regions
Eastern Woodlands, North America, Northeast, Southeast
keywords
Indian, American Indian Removal, Osceola, Andrew Jackson, Treaties, treaty, Trail of Tears, John Ross, Menominee, Catahecassa, Black Hoof
Essential Understandings More Close

1: American Indian Cultures
Culture is a result of human socialization. People acquire knowledge and values by interacting with other people through common language, place, and community. In the Americas, there is vast cultural diversity among more than 2,000 tribal groups. Tribes have unique cultures and ways of life that span history from time immemorial to the present day.

2: Time, Continuity, and Change
Indigenous people of the Americas shaped life in the Western Hemisphere for millennia. After contact, American Indians and the events involving them greatly influenced the histories of the European colonies and the modern nations of North, Central, and South America. Today, this influence continues to play significant roles in many aspects of political, legal, cultural, environmental, and economic issues. To understand the history and cultures of the Americas requires understanding American Indian history from Indian perspectives.

3: People, Places, and Environments
For thousands of years, indigenous people have studied, managed, honored, and thrived in their homelands. These foundations continue to influence American Indian relationships and interactions with the land today.

9: Global Connections
American Indians have always engaged in the world beyond the immediacy of their own communities. For millennia, indigenous people of North America exchanged and traded ideas, goods, technologies, and arts with other tribal nations, near and far. Global connections expanded and intensified after contact with Europeans. American Indian foods, technologies, wealth, and labor contributed to the development of the modern world.


LEARN MORE ABOUT ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS

Academic Standards More Close

College, Career, & Civic Life–C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards

Overarching Standards/Summative Performance Task

D1.5.6-8
Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration multiple points of views represented in the sources.

D1.5.9-12
Determine the kinds of sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration multiple points of view represented in the sources, the types of sources available, and the potential uses of the sources.

D4.1.6-8
AConstruct arguments using claims and evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging the strengths and limitations of the arguments.

D4.1.9-12
Construct arguments using precise and knowledgeable claims, with evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging counterclaims and evidentiary weaknesses.


Supporting Question 1

D3.3.6-8
Identify evidence that draws information from multiple sources to support claims, noting evidentiary limitations.

D3.3.9-12
Identify evidence that draws information directly and substantively from multiple sources to detect inconsistencies in evidence in order to revise or strengthen claims.


Supporting Question 2

D3.4.6-8
Develop claims and counterclaims while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both.

D3.4.9-12
Refine claims and counterclaims attending to precision, significance, and knowledge conveyed through the claim while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both.


Supporting Question 3

D3.4.6-8
Develop claims and counterclaims while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both.

D3.4.9-12
Refine claims and counterclaims attending to precision, significance, and knowledge conveyed through the claim while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both.


Taking Informed Action

D4.7.6-8; 9-12
Assess options for individual and collective action to address local, regional, and global problems by engaging in self-reflection, strategy identification, and complex causal reasoning.

D4.6.6-8; 9-12
Use disciplinary and interdisciplinary lenses to understand the characteristics and causes of local, regional, and global problems; instances of such problems in multiple contexts; and challenges and opportunities faced by those trying to address these problems over time and place.


Common Core State Standards

Overaching Standards/Summative Performance Task

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.10
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

6-8 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.1

Write [construct] arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

9-10 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.9-10.1

Write [construct] arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

11-12 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST11-12.1

Write [construct] arguments focused on discipline-specific content.


Supporting Question One: What Was the Muscogee Nation's Experience with Removal?

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.1
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

6-8 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.1.B

Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.

9-10 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.9-10.1.A

Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

11-12 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.1.A

Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.


Supporting Question Two: How Did the Cherokee Nation Resist Removal?

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.1
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

6-8 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.6.1

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

6-8 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.7.1

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

6-8 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.8.1

Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

9-10 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

11-12 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.


Supporting Question Three: How Did Six Different Nations Try to Avoid Removal?

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.1
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

6-8 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.6-8.1.B

Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.

9-10 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.9-10.1.B

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.

11-12 Grades
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST.11-12.1.B

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.