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Native Words, Native Warriors
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Native Words, Native Warriors

Credits

Native Words, Native Warriors was produced by the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI), Smithsonian Institution. Lead funding for the Native Knowledge 360° education initiative provided by Margaret A. Cargill Philanthropies, Cherokee Nation, and Elizabeth Hunter Solomon. Major funding provided by the Booth Ferris Foundation, The Ralph Lauren Corporate Foundation, the National Museum of the American Indian’s National Council, Bonnie and Jere Broh-Kahn, and Deutsche Bank Americas Foundation. Additional funding provided by Mr. Rodney Coenen, The Nathan Cummings Foundation, Mr. William Lomax, and the Secretary of the Smithsonian and the Smithsonian Seattle Regional Council. Copyright, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of the American Indian, 2020.

PROJECT DEVELOPER AND WRITER

Edwin Schupman (Muscogee), NMAI

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Colleen Call Smith, NMAI

MaryBeth Yerdon, NMAI

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION ADVISORY/REVIEW TEAM

Robert Alexander (Kiowa), NMAI

Wendy Hurlock Baker, NMAI

Clare Cuddy, NMAI

Alexandra Harris, NMAI

Katherine Krile, SITES

Keevin Lewis (Navajo), NMAI

Genevieve Simermeyer (Osage), NMAI

Colleen Call Smith, NMAI

Kathy Suter, NMAI

Vilma Ortiz-Sanchez, NMAI

MaryBeth Yerdon, NMAI

WEB

Laurie Swindull, NMAI

Cheryl Wilson, NMAI

Deanna Wood, NMAI

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

Clint Baker - Baker & Hill

Brian Cordyack - Baker & Hill

Mark Hill - Baker & Hill

VOICE OVER

Tim Morgan

Sarah Partridge

EDITOR

Martha Davidson

RECORDINGS

Comanche Language recording

Courtesy, Comanche Nation (provided by Mrs. Tomah Yeahquo, Director of the Comanche Nation Language Immersion Department with direct approval of Mr. Wallace Coffey, Comanche Nation Tribal Chairman)

Sandra Karty (Comanche), Comanche Elder Translator

Videll Yackeschi, Native American Translator, Comanche Language Program

Additional Comanche language

Fred Nahwooksy (Comanche), NMAI

Navajo Code Talker alphabet recording

Courtesy, Circle of Light Navajo Educational Project

Keith Little (Navajo Code Talker)

Additional Navajo language

Berenice Levchuk (Navajo)

Leonda Levchuk (Navajo)

Code Talking Re-creation

Re-creation of a WWII Comanche Code Talker battlefield transmission by Richard Codypony (Comanche), based on information provided by Charles Chibitty, Comanche Code Talker, courtesy of Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma Museum of History

Code Talker Interviews

Courtesy, National Museum of the American Indian, 2004

John Brown, Jr. (Navajo)

Charles Chibitty (Comanche)

Chester Nez (Navajo)

Merril L. Sandoval (Navajo)

Frank Sanache (Meskwaki)

Franklin Shupla (Hopi)

Sam Tso (Navajo)

Travis Yaiva (Hopi)


Spellings of code words from the Navajo language and their translations for this website were derived from the Navajo Code Talkers Dictionary, revised version, June, 1945. Spellings of code words from the Comanche language and their translations for this website were derived from The Comanche Code Talkers of World War II by William C. Meadows, University of Texas Press, 2002.

MUSIC

Comanche Flag Song

Courtesy, Comanche Nation (provided by Mrs. Tomah Yeahquo, Director of the Comanche Nation Language Immersion Department with direct approval of Mr. Wallace Coffey, Comanche Nation Tribal Chairman)

Singers: Kevin Sovo, June Sovo, Gene Sovo, Lenniel Sovo, Stacy Sovo, Chris Otipoby

Comanche Code Talker Song

Courtesy, Comanche Nation (provided by Mrs. Tomah Yeahquo, Director of the Comanche Nation Language Immersion Department with direct approval of Mr. Wallace Coffey, Comanche Nation Tribal Chairman)

Singers: Anthony Monoessy, Cheevers Delgado

Tai-pe-go Starting Song

Kiowa Gourd Dance, Volume 1, IH 2503. Courtesy of Indian House, Taos, NM

Singers: Daniel Cozad, Joe Cozad, Larry Cozad, Leonard Cozad Sr., Billy Hunting Horse, Adam Kaulaity, Vincent Spotted Bird, Yale Spotted Bird, Velma Cozad, Barbara Ahhaitty Monoessy, Dobbin Monoessy, Naomi Svitak

Comanche Hymn

Beautiful Beyond: Christian Songs in Native Languages. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, SFWCD 40480

Singers: Members of Petarsey United Methodist Church, Lawton, Oklahoma

Sweet Hour of Prayer (Navajo)

Beautiful Beyond: Christian Songs in Native Languages. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, SFWCD 40480

Singers: TeecNosPos Gospel Melody – Alfred L. Jim, Cynthia Anderson, and John Wilson

Navajo Code Talkers

Jay Begaye, The Beauty Way. Courtesy of Canyon Records, 3131 West Clarendon Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona 85017. All rights reserved.

Singers: Jay Begaye, Norman Shorty, Leander Shay, Leandrew Shay

Diné Flag Song

The Colorful World by Jay Begaye. Courtesy of Canyon Records, 3131 West Clarendon Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona 85017. All rights reserved.

Singer: Jay Begaye

Veterans’ Honor Song, with Robert Tree Cody, Native American Flute

For All Eternity by Tódí Neesh Zhee Singers. Courtesy of Canyon Records, 3131 West Clarendon Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona 85017. All rights reserved.

Singers: Albert “Bucky” Nelson III, Alger Greyeyes, Elmer Greyeyes, Albert Nelson Jr., Paul F. Boone, Leander Seaton, Jerome Austin, Gary Nelson, Jerome Cly

SPECIAL THANKS

Lanny Asepermy (Comanche)

Andy Boyd

Lauren Chyle

Wallace Coffey (Comanche)

Pamela DeRensis (Lumbee), NMAI

Robert Doyle, Canyon Records

Zonnie Gorman (Navajo)

Aaron Hibbard

George Horse Capture (A'aninin)

Tony Isaacs, Indian House Records

Kenji Kawano

Gina Laczko

William C. Meadows, Ph.D.

Tracy McGowan, Smithsonian Office of Contracts

Martina Minthorn (Comanche)

Machel Monenerkit (Comanche), NMAI

Fred Nahwooksy (Comanche), NMAI

Dmitri Nizhoni (Navajo), formerly NMAI

Gwen Shunatona (Pawnee, Otoe, Pottawatomi)

Amy Van Allen, NMAI

W. Richard West (Northern Cheyenne), NMAI

Pamela Woodis (Jicarilla Apache), NMAI

Tomah Yeahquo (Comanche)

Dennis Zotigh (Kiowa), NMAI

Photo Services, National Museum of the American Indian