Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations

Horse Creek Treaty, 1851  |  VIEW TRANSCRIPT »

In 1851 the United States invited all the Native Nations of the northern Great Plains to gather for a treaty council at the mouth of Horse Creek, near Fort Laramie, where Nebraska and Wyoming now meet. It was the largest gathering of Plains Nations in American history: ten thousand to fifteen thousand people attended. Two negotiators from the U.S. Office of Indian Affairs met with delegations representing nine Native Nations that spoke different languages but shared common concerns. This treaty is written on four pieces of parchment stitched together with blue ribbon. The Native delegates’ names are in the bottom right column.

Image: National Archives, Washington, DC | Transcript: Originally published in Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler, 1904; digitized by Oklahoma State University.