The Lummi refer to themselves as the Lhaq’temish, or People of the Sea.
For centuries, their culture and survival have depended on the annual migrations of salmon.
Bureau of Indian Affairs—as provided by the constitution of the United States, treaties, court decisions and federal statutes, the government agency that provides services directly to federally recognized tribes.
Historic ruling issued by federal judge George Boldt in 1974 upholding the treaty-based rights of Washington’s Indian tribes to fish in accustomed places. The Boldt Decision assigned half of the annual catch to treaty tribes and limited fishing by non-Indians.
A tool consisting of a large metal hook with a handle or pole, used to pull in large fish.
An area of land reserved in treaty negotiations for the exclusive use of an Indian tribe.
Puget Sound and the Northwest Coast: Puget Sound, located on the Pacific Northwest coast, is the traditional home to many Native peoples, including the Lummi Nation. It is a land and sea area rich in natural resources.
Historical Lummi Territory: Before the arrival of Europeans, Lummi lands included much of today's western Washington State and British Columbia, Canada. The Lummi travelled and traded across a much larger area than shown here.
Lummi Reservation: In the 1855 Treaty of Point Elliott with the United States, the Lummi handed over most of their vast traditional territory. The treaty reserved about 20,000 acres for Lummi use.
Try These Questions
How did the Lummi use the many cedar trees on their lands to meet their needs?
A) They used the bark to weave baskets.
B) They used the wood to carve shovel-nosed canoes.
C) They wove the bark into rope and fishing nets.
D) All of the above
That is correct!
The Lummi used the cedar tree extensively. As Felix Solomon said in the video, “There was not a place to go buy your stuff at. And you couldn’t buy your ropes or your gear.... You made everything.”
Read Article 5 of the
Treaty of Point Elliott,
then answer this question:
What rights does the treaty article guarantee to the Lummi?
A) Hunt, fish, or farm anywhere they choose
B) Fish in the places they have been accustomed to fishing
C) Take shellfish from people who have raised them
That is correct!
Under the Treaty of Point Elliott, the Lummi can continue to fish in their usual and accustomed places, even off the reservation. They have had to defend this right. See “Boldt Decision” in Key Terms.