Intro Native Languages Boarding Schools Code Talking Coming Home Survival Recognition


Roadway through the Southwest landscape
Roadway through the Southwest landscape with a mesa in the distance, about 1940. 1

War is hard on soldiers. They see death and destruction. They see comrades injured or killed—and sometimes they must kill others. Some endure the horrors of being a prisoner of war. Returning to a normal life after these kinds of experiences can be very difficult. American Indian cultures have special traditions that help their warriors return home.

Healing After the War

First Furlough, painting by Quincy Tahoma
"First Furlough," painting by Quincy Tahoma, a Navajo artist, 1943. 2

According to American Indian traditional beliefs, war affects a soldier’s well being, and makes it difficult for him to live in the everyday world. For American Indians, returning home means returning to a place—a land, a community, a family, and a culture—that you are part of, a place that you have a special relationship with. Participating in war interferes with your ability to be part of this place. It upsets the balance of life. This is why American Indian cultures have special ceremonies to help bring the soldier’s life back into balance—to make it possible for the soldier to once again live in peace and to be physically, spiritually, emotionally, and mentally healthy.

These ceremonies are part of the traditional religions of American Indians and are still part of life today for many American Indians. The ceremonies are powerful and have helped many Code Talkers and other returning soldiers. Many American Indians are also Christian, and the prayers and services of the Christian church were also an important part of the healing after war for many Code Talkers and other American Indian veterans.

Restoring Balance the Navajo Way

The Navajo people have different kinds of ceremonies for returning soldiers. When a soldier returns from war, his family can decide to sponsor a ceremony for him. They contact a spiritual leader, sometimes called a medicine man, who talks to the soldier about what he has experienced and decides which ceremony will be best for him. The Enemy Way ceremony, sometimes called the Squaw Dance, is one Navajo ceremony used for soldiers who were in combat, captured, or wounded.

The Black Pot Drum of the Enemy Way, a painting by Carl Gorman
“The Black Pot Drum of the Enemy Way,” a painting by Carl Gorman, depicts a scene in the Navajo Enemy Way Ceremony. 3

Intense preparations are made and, at the appropriate time, the ceremony is conducted. Often it includes family members and others who participate in the prayers, songs, and other parts of the ceremony. These ceremonies help the Navajo war veterans return to a state of balance, or beauty, within the universe. This state of balance is called “Hozho” in the Navajo language.

Happily may their roads back home be on the trail of pollen.
Happily may they all get back.
In beauty I walk.
With beauty before me, I walk.
With beauty behind me, I walk.
With beauty below me, I walk.
With beauty above me, I walk.
With beauty all around me, I walk.
It is finished in beauty,
It is finished in beauty,
It is finished in beauty,
It is finished in beauty.

'Sa'ah naaghéi, Bik'eh hózhó
—from a Navajo Ceremony (Four Masterworks of American Indian Literature, ed. by John Bierhorst, 1974)

I had nightmares thinking about the blood. The Japanese and the smell of the dead. Rotting Japanese and they probably got into my mind. And they had a Squaw Dance for me in Crystal. And I imagine they killed that evil spirit that was in my mind. That’s what it’s about. There’s a lot of stories there. It takes a long time to talk about it. It usually takes a medicine man to explain everything properly. But it works.—John Brown, Jr., Navajo Code Talker, National Museum of the American Indian interview, 2004

The Christian Church was also important to some Navajo veterans. The songs and prayers of these church ceremonies helped Navajo veterans who returned from war.

Restoring Balance the Comanche Way

Comanche tipi used for a ceremony of the Native American Church
Comanche tipi used for a ceremony of the Native American Church, near Lawton, Oklahoma in 1908. 4

Code Talkers and other soldiers participated in spiritual ceremonies before the war to protect them and after the war to help them recover from the effects. The Native American Church was an important form of spirituality for many Comanches and other veterans. The church combines traditional Indian ceremonies and Christianity. The ceremonies include the ingestion of peyote, a spiritual plant that is sacred to members of the Church. They last all night and are held in a tipi, where participants sing important songs and offer their prayers.

There was a peyote meeting for me at the church. I was given a piece of peyote that had been blessed to keep me from harm. I think all the others were given one too. It must have worked, for all of us came back home. Yes, I still have it.— Haddon Codynah, Comanche Code Talker (Comanche Code Talkers by William C. Meadows, 2002)

Christian services were also an important way for some Comanche Code Talkers and other veterans to offer their thanks for a safe return.

Giving Honor to Veterans

Navajo Code Talkers marching proudly in a parade in Washington, D.C.
Navajo Code Talkers marching proudly in a parade in Washington, D.C., July 1983. 5

American Indian communities remember their veterans’ sacrifices forever. Veterans are always respected and honored. Sometimes they are remembered in special songs that are sung in their honor. Native people often go to veterans for advice because they have strong mental abilities as a result of their many experiences. Depending on the community, veterans are given special prominence at different kinds of tribal events. For example, at powwows veterans always lead the grand entry of dancers. They carry the American Indian Eagle Staff, the flag of the United States, their tribal flag, and other important banners. Veterans are recognized and honored on special occasions with ceremonies and dances that relate their sacrifices to the community. For example, the Comanche Gourd Dance honors veterans. Sometimes a family member or a friend might hold a special dance or ceremony to honor a veteran. These are the lasting traditions that show respect to veterans for what they have done for the people.

Carl Gorman Returns Home

After the war, Carl Gorman returned home to Arizona for a short time. Even though he had been raised as a Christian, he talked about how the traditional Navajo ceremonies for warriors became important to him: "I didn't have a ceremony when I came home," he said. "I didn't quite believe in it anymore. A medicine man that was an old friend suggested that I have one, but I didn't have the money to pay him to perform it. He agreed to do a one-night sing over me for free. I participated in the sing and felt a great weight leave my mind and body. I felt very rested afterwards. I realized then that I needed to make peace with what I had experienced during the war." (Navajo Weapon by Sally McClain, 2001)

Charles Chibitty Returns Home

After leaving the Army, Charles Chibitty returned to Lawton, Oklahoma. He participated in both a Christian prayer meeting and a Native American Church ceremony to help himself recover from the effects of war and to give thanks for his safe return.

My full brother, we met in Germany and we had a couple of days together there. And when he come home then, they honored us in a big prayer meeting up there at Comanche Methodist Church.
They had a big peyote church for us (Native American Church), you know, up in the tipi... And it seemed like I got more benefit out of that than I did out of the church deal because everything was traditional, you know. And I understand them old people when they pray. Beautiful prayers that morning. It was a religion that was here before white men ever got here. —Charles Chibitty, Comanche Code Talker, National Museum of the American Indian interview, 2004

Reflection and Discussion Questions

Workbook: Words about Coming Home

What are your feelings about war and what it does to soldiers?

War has different effects on all soldiers. Some effects are bad and harmful, others are more positive. For a week, read newspaper articles about current wars or conflicts that involve military personnel. Look for quotations from soldiers, their families, or their leaders about war’s effects. Look for both negative and positive comments. Look for examples of how the country or individual communities are caring for these soldiers.

Expressing your feelings about war

Wounded United States soldiers of the 16th Infantry Regiment
Wounded United States soldiers of the 16th Infantry Regiment at Omaha Beach in Normandy, France. 6
Navajo Code Talkers at a 1979 parade
Navajo Code Talkers at a 1979 parade in Window Rock, Arizona, the capitol of the Navajo Nation 7
Rifle placed upside down in the ground with a helmet on top serving as a memorial
A rifle placed upside down in the ground with a helmet on top serving as a memorial of a soldier who has died 8

Think about the articles you read and how you feel about what you learned in them. For your workbook, choose a photo from above (or from another source) that reflects what you feel. In your workbook, write a poem or paragraph describing your feelings about war and its effects on soldiers.

Paste or tape in your workbook the newspaper articles that you found expressed your views on war.


  1. Photograph by Paul J. Woolf. National Museum of the American Indian, P24291
  2. Photograph by David Heald. National Museum of the American Indian, T236014
  3. Courtesy of Heard Museum, Phoenix, Arizona, IAC906
  4. Photograph by Mark R. Harrington. National Museum of the American Indian, N02770
  5. Photograph by Kenji Kawano. Courtesy of Kenji Kawano
  6. U.S. Army Photo. Courtesy of National Archives
  7. Photograph by Kenji Kawano. Courtesy of Kenji Kawano
  8. Photographer unknown. Courtesy of National Archives